1. MINIMISING THE RISK OF RETROGRADE CONTAMINATION
Water outlets, such as taps and showers, are a recognised environmental reservoir for micro-organisms. They can become contaminated via splashback from contaminated surfaces, waste traps, poor cleaning practices or simply by a user. Faucets can provide a suitable surface to harbour potential waterborne pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa1.
To minimise the risk of inadvertent retrograde contamination, the housing of Pall-AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters contain a non-leachable bacteriostatic additive, which has been evaluated following the principle of ISO 22196 2,3 .
1 Hutchins, C.F. et al., Journal of Hospital Infection, 97(2), 2017
2 Validation Guide, Pall-Aquasafe Disposable Water Filter- Tap,156–161 Literature Ref. 190911.1WGL
3 Validation Guide, Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter, Literature Ref. 190912.95WGL
2. NO BACK CONTAMINATION
Point-of-Use Water Filters can be used as a long term measure against waterborne pathogens release from the Point-of-Use. Point-of-Use Water Filters should retain waterborne microorganisms within their filter matrix and not release them back into the water system. Manufacturers should be able to demonstrate that "no back contamination“ from the filter to the water distribution system occurs.
Pall Aquasafe™ and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters act as a barrier to and trap bacteria during their installation life. Laboratory and field evaluation studies1 have shown that Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters do not negatively affect the water system.
1 Technical Report, Analysis of Evidence for Water Network Back Contamination Related to Regressive Seeding Following Installation of Pall Point-of-Use water filters. Literature Ref. 190912.20WGL
3. FILTER CONSTRUCTION
In some manufacturing processes, Glues and resins may be used to assemble Point-of-Use Water Filters, providing nutrients that support bacterial and biofilm growth. Glues and resins may also soften under warm water temperatures or when in contact with chemicals, leading to a breach in filter integrity or material leaching.
The housing construction and sterilizing grade membranes of Pall AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point- of-Use Water Filters are assembled using mechanical methods only. No glues or resins are used in the manufacturing process of Pall Water Filters. In addition, Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters comply with food contact and water quality regulations1-2.
1 Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 on Plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food
2 BS 6920: Suitability of non-metallic materials and products for use in contact with water intended for human consumption with regard to their effect on the quality of the water
4. COMPATIBILITY WITH SYSTEMIC TREATMENTS
Systemic disinfectants are frequently used as a supporting control measure in water distribution systems. Point-of-Use Water Filters should therefore be compatible with and their performance not affected by commonly used systemic disinfectants.
Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters are compatible with a wide range of chemicals commonly used for systemic disinfection, including:
1. Active chlorine:
- continuous treatment: < 7 ppm at ambient temperature
- shock treatment: 100 ppm active chlorine for 1 hour at ambient temperature
- continuous treatment: 3 ppm at 38-60 °C
3. Peracetic acid:
- shock treatment: 1000 ppm at 60 °C for 2 hours at ambient temperature
4. pH >12:
- shock treatment: for up 1 h at ambient temperature
5. Chlorine dioxide:
- continuous treatment: < 1 ppm at ambient temperature
- shock treatment: 100 ppm for 12 hours at ambient temperature
The installation of Point-of-Use Water Filters should be performed following good hygienic practices to minimise the risk of inadvertent microbiological contamination.
The packaging of Pall QPoint® Disposable Water Filters and Filter Capsules has been designed to allow easy installation and handling, reducing the risk of inadvertent contamination of the filter outlet.
1 Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.113WGL
2 Pall QPoint Docking Station-Tap Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.99WGL
3 Pall QPoint Docking Station-Shower Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.101WGL
6. 100% MANUFACTURER TESTED
Lack of membrane integrity and/or filter housing leaks affect the ability of Point-of-Use Water Filters to retain microorganisms therefore, it is essential to have a high standard of quality control in the manufacturing process.
Before leaving the Pall manufacturing site, each Point-of-Use Water Filter is tested for:
1. Integrity test using forward diffusive flow air test. All products are membrane integrity tested.
2. Filter Capsule weld and leak testAll products are pressure decay tested.
3. Visual inspection All products, during manufacturing process.
7. MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY
Waterborne pathogens may still be present in a water distribution system despite the use of systemic chemical treatments1 and may become a risk to human health. Point-of-Use Water Filters should act as a physical barrier to common waterborne pathogens.
The double layer sterilising grade Supor® membrane of Pall AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters is validated at 0.2 μm and acts as a physical barrier to particulates and pathogens. Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters have been extensively validated through laboratory tests for the complete retention of common waterborne pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa2-3 following the principle of ASTM F838-15a4 and, their performance demonstrated by several independent scientific publications.
1 Cervero-Aragó et al, PLOS ONE, 10(8), 2015
2 Validation Guide, Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter, Literature Ref.190912.95WGL
3 Validation Guide Pall-Aquasafe Disposable Water Filter Retention of Legionella pneumophila. Literature Ref. 190912.22WGL4 F838-15a, Standard Test Method for Determining Bacterial Retention of Membrane Filters Utilised for Liquid Filtration, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.org
8. CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY WITH SURFACE DISINFECTANTS
Surface disinfectants are typically used as part of an audited cleaning protocol in public and healthcare settings. Point-of-Use Water Filters should therefore be compatible with and validated for, commonly used disinfectants.
Pall-AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® are compatible with commonly used surface disinfectants such as active chlorine, iso-propyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl ammonium chlorides, and non-ionic surfactants.
Data on file, please contact Pall for additional information.
9. POINT-OF-ENTRY TO POINT-OF-USE FILTRATION
Every building has a unique water system and therefore a unique mix of requirements regarding contamination control. Filtration can remove particulate, chemical and microbial contamination that may adversely affect equipment and users of that water system.
Pall Medical offers a broad range of filter systems from Point-of-Entry to Point-of-Use. In accordance to process parameters and performance needs, Pall Medical has a unique portfolio that is able to provide tailored filtration solutions for our customers.
10. SCIENTIFIC & LABORATORY SERVICES (SLS)
Water management within healthcare premises faces many complex challenges. Having a strong scientific partner with expertise in filtration and with laboratory facilities situated around the world to support hospitals could be a strong asset to the Water Safety Team.
Pall Scientific and Laboratory Services Global Technical Support provides a number of relevant services to assist customers meet their water filtration needs:
- Filter blockage investigation and analysis
- Filter integrity testing
- Chemical compatibility testing
- Thermal and pressure compatibility
- Silt Density Index (SDI) analysis