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1. MINIMISING THE RISK OF RETROGRADE CONTAMINATION

 

Water outlets, such as taps and showers, are a recognised environmental reservoir for micro-organisms. They can become contaminated via splashback from contaminated surfaces, waste traps, poor cleaning practices or simply by a user. Faucets can provide a suitable surface to harbour potential waterborne pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa1.

 

SOLUTION

 

To minimise the risk of inadvertent retrograde contamination, the housing of Pall-AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters  contain a non-leachable bacteriostatic additive, which has been evaluated following the principle of ISO 22196 2,3 .

 

1 Hutchins, C.F. et al., Journal of Hospital Infection, 97(2), 2017

2 Validation Guide, Pall-Aquasafe Disposable Water Filter- Tap,156–161    Literature Ref. 190911.1WGL

3 Validation Guide, Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter, Literature Ref. 190912.95WGL

 

 

 

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2. NO BACK CONTAMINATION

 

Point-of-Use Water Filters can be used as a long term measure against waterborne pathogens release from the Point-of-Use. Point-of-Use Water Filters should retain waterborne microorganisms within their filter matrix and not release them back into the water system. Manufacturers should be able to demonstrate that  "no back contamination“ from the filter to the water distribution system occurs.

 

SOLUTION

 

Pall Aquasafe™  and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters act as a barrier to and trap bacteria during their installation life. Laboratory and field evaluation studies1 have shown that Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters do not negatively affect the water system.

 

1 Technical Report, Analysis of Evidence for Water Network Back Contamination Related to Regressive Seeding Following Installation of Pall Point-of-Use water filters. Literature Ref. 190912.20WGL

 

 

 

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3. FILTER CONSTRUCTION

 

In some manufacturing processes, Glues and resins may be used to assemble Point-of-Use Water Filters, providing nutrients that support bacterial and biofilm growth. Glues and resins  may also soften under warm water temperatures or when in contact with chemicals, leading to a breach in filter integrity or material leaching.

 

SOLUTION

 

The housing construction and sterilizing grade membranes of Pall AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point- of-Use Water Filters are assembled using mechanical methods only. No glues or resins are  used in the manufacturing process of Pall Water Filters. In addition, Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters comply with food contact and water quality regulations1-2.

 

1 Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 on Plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food

2 BS 6920: Suitability of non-metallic materials and products for use in contact with water intended for human consumption with regard to their effect on the quality of the water

 

 

 

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4. COMPATIBILITY WITH SYSTEMIC TREATMENTS

 

Systemic disinfectants are frequently used  as a supporting control measure in  water distribution systems. Point-of-Use Water Filters should therefore be compatible with and their performance not affected by commonly used systemic disinfectants.

 

SOLUTION

 

Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters are compatible with a wide range of chemicals commonly used for systemic disinfection, including:

 

1. Active chlorine:

 

  • continuous treatment:  < 7 ppm at ambient temperature
  • shock treatment:   100 ppm active chlorine  for  1 hour at ambient temperature

2. Monochloramine:

 

  • continuous treatment: 3 ppm at  38-60 °C

 

 

3. Peracetic acid:

 

  • shock treatment:  1000 ppm at 60 °C  for 2 hours at ambient   temperature 

4. pH >12:

 

  • shock treatment: for up 1 h at ambient   temperature

 

 

5. Chlorine dioxide:

 

  • continuous treatment:  < 1 ppm at ambient   temperature
  • shock treatment:  100 ppm for 12 hours at  ambient temperature

 

 

 

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5. PACKAGING

 

The installation of Point-of-Use Water Filters should be performed following good hygienic practices to minimise the risk of inadvertent microbiological contamination.

 

SOLUTION

 

The packaging of Pall QPoint® Disposable Water Filters and Filter Capsules has been designed to allow easy installation and handling, reducing the risk of inadvertent contamination of the filter outlet.

 

1 Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.113WGL

2 Pall QPoint Docking Station-Tap Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.99WGL

3 Pall QPoint Docking Station-Shower Installation Guide. Literature Ref. 190912.101WGL

 

 

 

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6. 100% MANUFACTURER TESTED

 

Lack of membrane integrity and/or filter housing leaks affect the ability of Point-of-Use Water Filters to retain microorganisms therefore, it is essential to have a high standard of quality control in the manufacturing process.

 

SOLUTION

 

Before leaving the Pall manufacturing site, each Point-of-Use Water Filter is tested for:

 

1. Integrity test using forward diffusive flow air test. All products are membrane integrity tested.

2. Filter Capsule weld and leak testAll products are pressure decay tested.

3. Visual inspection All products, during manufacturing process.

 

 

 

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7. MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

 

Waterborne pathogens may still be present in a water distribution system despite the use of systemic chemical treatments1 and may become a risk to human health. Point-of-Use Water Filters should act as a physical barrier to common waterborne pathogens.

 

SOLUTION

 

The double layer sterilising grade Supor® membrane of  Pall AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® Point-of-Use Water Filters is validated at 0.2 μm and acts as a physical barrier to particulates and pathogens. Pall Point-of-Use Water Filters have been extensively validated through laboratory tests for the  complete retention of common waterborne pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa2-3 following the principle of ASTM F838-15a4 and, their performance  demonstrated by several independent scientific publications.

 

1 Cervero-Aragó et al, PLOS ONE, 10(8), 2015

2 Validation Guide, Pall QPoint Disposable Water Filter, Literature Ref.190912.95WGL

3 Validation Guide Pall-Aquasafe Disposable Water Filter Retention of Legionella pneumophila. Literature Ref. 190912.22WGL4 F838-15a, Standard Test Method for Determining Bacterial Retention of Membrane    Filters Utilised for Liquid Filtration, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015,    www.astm.org 

 

 

 

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8. CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY WITH SURFACE DISINFECTANTS

 

Surface disinfectants are typically used as part of an audited cleaning protocol in public and healthcare settings. Point-of-Use Water Filters should therefore be compatible with and validated for, commonly used disinfectants.

 

SOLUTION

 

Pall-AquasafeTM and Pall QPoint® are compatible with commonly used surface disinfectants such as active chlorine, iso-propyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, benzyl ammonium chlorides, and non-ionic surfactants.

 

Data on file, please contact Pall for additional information.

 

 

 

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9. POINT-OF-ENTRY TO POINT-OF-USE FILTRATION

 

Every building has a unique water system and therefore a unique mix of requirements regarding contamination control. Filtration can remove particulate, chemical and microbial contamination that may adversely affect equipment and users of that water system.

 

SOLUTION

 

Pall Medical offers a broad range of filter systems from Point-of-Entry to Point-of-Use. In accordance to process parameters and performance needs, Pall Medical has a unique portfolio that is able to provide tailored filtration solutions for our customers.

 

 

 

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10. SCIENTIFIC & LABORATORY SERVICES (SLS)

 

Water management within healthcare premises faces many complex challenges. Having a strong scientific partner with expertise in filtration and with laboratory facilities situated around the world to support hospitals could be a strong asset to the Water Safety Team.

 

SOLUTION

 

Pall Scientific and Laboratory Services Global Technical Support provides a number of relevant services to assist customers meet their water filtration needs:

 

  • Filter blockage investigation and analysis
  • Filter integrity testing
  • Chemical compatibility testing
  • Thermal and pressure compatibility
  • Silt Density Index (SDI) analysis 

 

 

 

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